柏林圍牆倒下25周年紀念

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比京隨筆/柏林圍牆倒下25年後 25 years after the fall of Berlin Wall

【聯合報╱布魯塞爾記者蕭白雪】

柏林圍牆倒塌至今四分之一世紀,最近一連串紀念活動、回顧影片和訪問,重現當年情景,很難想像不過才廿五年,統一後的德國如今是歐洲龍頭,蘇聯共產主義垮台後,不但蘇聯解體,近來面對歐美制裁的俄國,更是免不了大嘆當年戈巴契夫未能保住俄國在歐陸的利益。

It has been a quarter century since the collapse of Berlin Wall. Recent memorial events, films and interviews have re-visualized the scenes in 1989. It was hard to imagine that it took only 25 years for a unifiedGermany to become the driver of the European Continent. In the aftermath of the fall of soviet socialism, not only did the Soviet Union collapsed, the West-blockaded Russia would further bemoan that Mikhail Gorbachev failed to secure their interest in Europe.

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一九八九年十一月九日晚間,當東柏林邊境宣布開放後,柏林圍牆上站滿東、西德兩方人民的畫面,近來不斷在媒體重播,讓許多德國人免不了回想起當年情景。

When the border of East Berlin opened at night on 9 November 1989, the wall was crowded with citizens from East and West Berlin. This scene was recently replayed massively in media, and reminded many Germans their situation 25 years ago.

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德國前總理柯爾最近出版的新書中,談到當年柏林圍牆倒塌後,他與英國首相柴契爾、美國總統雷根、法國總統密特朗等人到莫斯科與戈巴契夫協商、促成兩德統一的往事,被媒體當成熱門話題。

In a new book written by the former Chancellor of Germany Helmut Kohl, he discussed that after the Berlin Wall fell, he went to Moscow to negotiate with Mikhail Gorbachev with the British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, the American President Ronald Reagan and the French President François Mitterrand. This negotiation had later led West and East Germany to re-unify, and had been broadcasted as a hot topic by the media.

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僅管歷經第二次世界大戰及東西冷戰隔離,一度被視為「歐洲病夫」的德國如今卻儼然是歐洲領袖,德國經濟是歐洲成長引擎,歐盟所有重大決策,沒有德國總理梅克爾點頭就不算底定。

Despite the separation due to the Second World War and the Cold War, Germany, the once-considered “sick man of Europe”, is now the leader of the Continent. The German economy is the engine for growth in Europe. For all decisions made by the European Union, without the nod from the German Chancellor Angela Merkel, the decision could not be finalised.

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不過,德國內部至今仍存有德東、德西的差異,梅克爾在處理美國監聽事件或與俄國總統普亭交涉烏克蘭危機時,她出身東德的背景也是一再被提起。兩德分離曾留下的歷史烙印,顯然不是圍牆倒塌就會隨之消失。

Nevertheless, internally in Germany, there were still differences between the East and the West. In solving the controversy of American phone tapping and the dispute of Ukraine with the Russian President Vladmir Putin, her East Germany background was again been raised. The historic record left by the Iron Curtain would obviously remain, despite the collapse of the Berlin Wall.

相較之下,俄國人近來看待柏林圍牆倒塌廿五周年,更是別有一番滋味在心頭。

Comparatively, Russians were more sentimental towards the quarter century of the fall of the Wall.

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當年曾在戈巴契夫身旁擔任翻譯的一名俄國人接受訪問時說,當年柯爾、柴契爾夫人和密特朗都沒預料到兩德會如此快速統一,還擔心中歐可能發生革命。近來飽受歐美抨擊的普亭,則對當年的蘇聯領袖戈巴契夫有不少批評,認為他當時態度不夠強硬,在兩德統一事件上,至少要換來西方國家保證俄國在歐洲的利益。

During an interview with a translator of Mikhail Gorbachev, he said at that time, Kohl, Thatcher and Mitterrand did not envisage that the reunification would occur so quickly. They were even worried of revolutions in Central Europe. Vladmir Putin, heavily condemned by the West recently, had quite a few criticisms towards the by then Soviet leader. He thinks that Gorbachev’s attitude was not strong enough. In the incident of German re-unification, he had to at least receive assurance of Russian interests in Europe from the West.

柏林圍牆的倒塌,不管是偶然或必然,歷史都無法重寫。Whether it was a coincidence or a destiny, the history of the fall of Berlin Wall could never be re-written.

 

八千發光氣球包圍柏林圍牆 Berlin is divided by 8,000 glowing balloons, commemorating the 25th anniversary of the wall’s fall.

 

*Recommended videos for Cold War about the Wall*

Two episodes of documentary that are worth watching today.  They are from the documentary series “Cold War” produced by CNN more than a decade ago

1) Cold War – The Wall (1958-1963)

2) Cold War – The Wall Comes Down (1989)

 

 

Source: http://udn.com/NEWS/WORLD/WOR3/9047712.shtml

Translated by Medium Raw